In this work, we examined attribution of cryptographic keys based on their moduli. We analyzed over 6.5 million keys generated by 43 cryptographic libraries versions on 20 Linux OS versions released over the past 8 years. Depending on the library, our approach is sensitive enough to pinpoint the corresponding major, minor, and build release of several libraries that generated an individual key with an accuracy of 81%- 98%.
We further explore attribution of SSH keys collected from more than 220,000 publicly facing IPv4 addresses and show that our approach is able to differentiate individual libraries of RSA keys with 95% accuracy. Dataset of employed keys in the submitted paper can be accessed through the following links:
|Collected key||191,976 collected keys from 220,837 systems over IPv4||link|
|Generated keys||6,767,078 generated keys by 43 cryptographic libraries versions on 20 Linux OS versions||link|